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of the 

innivcreiti^ of Mieconein 

Simple Soldering 







Instructor of Decorative Metal Work 

Columbia Uni'versity, Neiv York 





E. & F. N. SPON, Ltd., 57 Haymarket, S.W. 



Copyright 191^ 


Nbw York 

CAMELOT PRESS, 18-20 Oak Street, New York, U. S. A. 


AUG 20 1915 b f 4 7[ ^ 

3 '^3 

• \ 


In looking through many books on the sub- 
ject of soldering and in an almost daily use of 
the processes described in the following pages, 
it has seemed that something more might be 
written of, " how " rather than " why." 

The action of metals under heat; the unions 
resulting from the melting and amalgamations 
or welding properties of certain metallic combi- 
nations; the fluxes required to clean and protect 
the metals to be joined; the number of degrees 
of heat needed, etc. ; are aptly described in other 

But the method of securing the desired result 
in the simplest possible manner is not often 
clear, and to that end this little book is written.' 

Edward Thatcher. 
New York, 1910. 




The unitinfir of metals. Soft soldering. The flux. 
Hard soldering or brazing i 


Soft Soldering 

Heating the work. Flux for soldering. Soldering 
fluid. Simple joints. Soldering a ring. Common 
solder. The flame. Heating the joint. Resin. 
Small work. Tinning. A handy scraper . . 3 


Methods of Holding Work 

Wiring work. Special holders. Soldering to steel or 
iron. Soldering brass castings. A stiff bristle 
brush. Tinfoil solder. Plaster-of- Paris resist. 
Soldering jewelry. Cooling. Tinning a bowl. 
The soldering copper. The charcoal furnace. 
Joining ^ sheets of metal. Common sheet tin. 
Pure tin solder 15 

Hard Soldering or Brazing 

Silver solder. Soldering copper. Soldering iron and 
steel. Soldering gold. Soldering aluminum. Use 
of borax as a flux; Both as a powder; as a 
l^aste; and as a liquid. Causes of solder refus- 
ing to melt. Action of water and acid on soldered 
joints. Protecting soldered joints with rouge. 
The secrets of hard soldering. The charcoal 
block. The pickle-bath. Brazing 33 



Cleaning up Work. Polishing 


Scraping down. Honing. Finishing. Buff-sticks. 
Buff-wheel. Files. Burnishing 52 


Standard Apparatus 

The blow-pipe. Foot bellows. The gasoline torch. 
The alcohol blow-torch. The Bunsen Burner. 
The charcoal brazier. Soldering iron furnace . 56 


Home-made Apparatus 

A simple Bunsen burner. A simple blow-pipe. A 
large blow-pipe. The construction of a pair of 
bellows. A soldering box. How to make a very 
small soldering iron 63- 



1. Butt joint 6 

2. Lap joint 6 

3. Metal workers scraper 7 

4. Soldering ring with bunsen burner .... 9 

5. Soft soldering a ring on to a flat surface . . 11 

6. Hoe scraper 16 

7. 8, 9, 10, II. Spring clamps for holding work . 16 

12. Plan for handy holder 17 

13. A handy holder for special work 18 

14. Soldering on cylinder head 22 

15. Spring clipp for holding ball 23 

16. Plaster-of-Paris resist 24 

17. Ordinary soldering copper 26 

18. Soldering two sheets of tin together .... 28 

19. Soldering two sheets of tin together (second 

method) 29 

20. Soldering a watch chain 31 

21. Preparing a ring for soldering 36 

22. Slate block for mixing borax 37 

23. Pair of tweezers 38 

24. Hard soldering a ring 40 

25. Hard soldering a ring to flat surface . . . .41 

26. Charcoal soldering block 47 

27. The pickle bath 48 

28. Double gasoline soldering torch 49 

29. Welding with a charcoal fire 50 

30. " Scotch stone " 53 

31. Burnisher * 55 

32. Blow-pipe 56 

33. Blow-pipe showing flame 57 

34. Gasoline torch ..,,.,..,,• ^ 



35. Alcohol blow-torch 59 

S6. Charcoal brazier for soldering 60 

37. Soldering iron furnace 61 

38. Bunsen burner \, c .... 63 

39. A simple blow-pipe, detail ,04 

40. 41. A simple blow-pipe completed . . , , . 65 

42. A large blow-pipe 67 

43. Foot bellows, end piece .68 

44. 45. Foot bellows, sectional views 69 

46. Foot bellows, pattern for leather 71 

47. Foot bellows, fastening for leather . . , . 71 

48. Foot bellows, protecting band 72 

49. Foot rest 73 

50. Completed foot bellows 74 

51. A soldering box 75 

52. Small soldering copper 76 


The Uniting of Metals, by a fused metallic 
substance, or metallic cement as the dictionary 
has it, is what is known as soldering. 

In order that the metals be properly united 
with the metallic solder they must be perfectly 
clean and free from dirt or oils of any sort, and 
so are usually scraped with a knife-like instru- 
ment or rubbed bright with emery cloth. To 
further clean the metal and render it clear of all 
dirt and oxide from the source of heat a " flux " 
is used. 

The class of work requiring soft solder, and 
the class of work to be hard soldered are usually 
of quite different types* 

Soft Soldering. The metal used for soft sol- 
dering is usually a mixture of equal parts of 
tin and lead. This has the advantage of requir- 
ing a much lower temperature to fuse it than 
the metals which it is to unite. 

The Flux used for soft soldering is usually 
resin or " killed acid," the latter being known as 
soldering fluid. The purpose of this flux is 
simply to keep the metals clean where soldered 


or rather, where they are to be united by the 

Hard Soldering or Brazing. Silver or brass 
is used as the uniting metal (brass solder is 
known as spelter). This of course makes a 
much stronger joint than soft-solder; but the 
higher degree of heat needed to melt the silver 
or brass solder makes it often useless for jobs 
which will not stand a high degree of heat. 
Hard Soldering also requires more complicated 
apparatus to attain the required amount of heat. 

The Flux used for Hard Soldering and Braz- 
ing is usually borax dry or in the form of a paste. 
Muriatic acid is also used for special kinds of 

Both processes have come to be used for cer- 
tain things well suited to the conditions of their 
several merits, and the matter on the following 
pages is intended to make this clear. 

Soft Soldering 

Soft Soldering is generally known as some- 
thing that is accomplished with a soldering iron 
or copper, which is a piece of copper weighing 
from a few ounces to several pounds firmly 
attached to an iron rod having a handle. It is 
usually heated in a charcoal or gas furnace until 
it will melt soft solder and then removed and 
placed in contact with the joint to be soldered. 
Thus heating up the metals to be united as well 
as the solder on the spot where the solder should 
" run " or flow and adhere. 

This method has its advantages, but I think 
many amateurs try to make joints by this 
method greatly to their detriment instead of 
resorting to direct heating with the flame which 
will be described first. 

Heating the Work. No matter how the heat 
is conveyed to the joint it must be remembered 
that both pieces to be soldered must be heated 
equally or else the piece which receives the most 
heat, usually the smaller, will absorb all the sol- 
der. It is a safe rule to always heat the larger 
piece first, allowing the smaller pieces to receive 



their heat from the larger ones. Both metals 
to be joined must be heated to the melting 
point of the solder. 

Flux for Soldering. Before we can make a 
perfect joint we must have a proper flux. For 
many purposes resin is used, but soldering fluid 
serves almost wholly for all small work except 
electrical connections. For electrical work a 
special soldering stick is made from resinous 
compounds. This may be purchased at any 
electrical supply house. Resin may be had of 
the hardware merchant. But the cleanliness of 
soldering fluid makes it advisable for general 
use. In electrical work some engineers main- 
tain that the acid corrodes the metals, others 
say it does not; many use' it, but the soldering 
stick is generally used. When making experi- 
mental models in metals, attaching pins to jew- 
elry and all such work use the soldering fluid 
which may be purchased ready made, or can be 
prepared in the following simple manner. 

Soldering Fluid. Use an open mouth pint 
fruit-jar and pour in about half a pint of chem- 
ically pure muriatic acid. Then get some pure 
zinc. Battery zincs are best because pure. The 
zinc used under stoves, and about the shop is 
not pure. Use only the purest zinc there is to 
be had. The battery zinc is easiest to obtain; 
if this is in sheets cut it into small strips about 


%6 i^ch wide and 2 inches in length or in 
any way so the acid may rapidly attack it. If 
the zinc is in bars a coarse wood rasp is useful 
to reduce it to small bits or filings. 

Put a small handful of the zinc clippings or 
filings into the jar of muriatic acid. This should 
start immediately to attack, and eat up the zinc, 
and a continuous bubbling action sets up. This 
operation should be carried on out of doors as 
the fumes from it are. very injurious and dis- 
agreeable. After a while, say fifteen minutes, 
put in another handful of clippings and continue 
to add more at short intervals until the bubbling 
action ceases entirely when new zinc is intro- 
duced into the solution. The acid is now 
" killed " or saturated with the zinc. 

It is a good plan to let it stand over night 
and carefully strain oflF in the morning so as to 
get a clear solution, throwing away the residue. 
If necessary it may be used immediately after 
the bubbling action ceases, but it is much better 
to let it settle. 

We now have a good soldering solution or 
flux fbr general soft soldering. It should be 
kept tightly covered by the screw top on the jar 
or by laying a piece of flat glass over the jar 
to exclude air. It is a good plan to use a small 
bottle with a ground-glass stopper. If the solu- 
tion evaporates and gets " strong " it becomes 
rather useless as it " gums " the work when 


Simple Joints, most commonly used are the 
" butt " joint and the " lap " joint. 

The "Butt" Joint, Fig. i, is made where the 
two ends of the metal meet squarely and where 
no great strength is required. 

Fig. I. 

The " Lap " Joint is used where strength is 
required and is made by filing the ends down to 
a sharp bevel so that they lap over each other 
as in Fig. 2. This gives more surface to be 
soldered and consequently greater strength. 

Fig. 2. 

Any work which is to be bent or hammered 
should be made with lap joints as soft solder 
will not stand a' strong blow or strain. For 
such work, however, hard soldering is the best. 
In these problems the use of a soldering 


copper IS purposely avoided as much as possible 
the flame being principally used. 

After scraping a joint bright do not handle 
it with the fingers any more than may be nec- 
essary; no matter how clean they are even the 
natural oils of the body, to say nothing of the 
dirt accumulated in working metals, interferes 
with the making of a good joint. 

Fig. 3. 

Soldering A Ring. Take a strip of sheet 
brass %e inch thick, by 3 inches long and f inch 
in width. First carefully shape up your ring 
so that the ends meet squarely, " butt together." 
They should be filed true, and be perfectly clean 
and bright. Do not depend upon solder to fill 
up gaps and make your joints meet. A little 
film of solder is stronger than a lot of it. 

Scrape the brass around the joint for about a 
i inch on each side ; also scrape the sides. This 
may be done with an old knife, file or a trian- 
gular instrument of steel set in a wooden handle 
used by metal-workers called a scraper. Fig. 3. 

The ring of brass expands when heated and 
tends to pull the joint apart. This should be 
prevented by tying the ring together with iron 
wire, usually soft iron wire about No. 27, tied 


around the ring as illustrated in Fig. 4. and not 
across it. This wire should be twisted tightly to- 
gether with a pair of pincers. It will then ef- 
fectually hold the joint- together. Leave enough 
end to the wire to hold the ring by. 

Take a brush and moisten the joint thoroughly 
with the fluid but take care that it is wet only 
about and between it. Cut oflf three or four 
pieces about -J inch square from a narrow 
strip of solder (jewelers' solder) and place them 
in the joint with a pair of tweezers. 

The solder should first be scraped bright and 
then plentifully moistened with the fluid after 
it is laid on the joint. The ring is now ready 
for heating. 

Common Solder comes in bars about 14 inches 
in length and i inch square. This form is not 
handy for direct heating and should be melted 
up into long narrow strips or small pellets. 
Wire solder. or "jewelers' solder" is easy to ob- 
tain almost anywhere ; strips of it are easily made 
by pouring molten solder from an iron ladle into 
narrow grooves cut in a board with a small 

The Simplest Way to melt and flow the solder 
is to suspend the ring over a bunsen burner 
flame, Fig. 4. If that is not to be had, a common 
gas stove, gasoline torch, Fig. 34, or even a 
charcoal fire may be used. 


The Flame should be applied underneath, not 
above and in contact with the bits of solder. 
Swing the ring or flame slightly from side to 
side and so heat both sides evenly. The solder 
should melt and flow after very little heating. 
By no means allow the work to become red-hot; 
it does not require a red heat to melt the solder. 
Such a temperatui-e will not only oxidize the lead 
and tin in the soft solder to a brittle useless 
compound, but will eat holes deep into the work 
and cause no end of trouble. If this happens 
the whole process should be gone over again, 
the work rescraped, covered with fluid and new 
solder used. Even this is not always satisfac- 
tory and an entirely new piece of work may have 
to be produced. 

When Heating the Joint if the solder does 
not melt in what your experience leads you to be- 
lieve is a sufficient time, put some fresh solder- 
ing fluid on the hot joint. This may clean and 
release the solder which is sometimes prevented 
from melting by a film of oxide or dirt. You 
may also dip the end of a long strip of solder 
into the fluid and touch the hot metal at the 
joint, so that some of the strip of solder will 
melt and join the metal. 

Sometimes the ring has to be cooled and freshly 
scraped if the solder does not behave properly, 
even if fresh fluid and solder have been applied. 


A few drops of water will cool the ring or it 
may be immersed slowly in water. 

If the wire is taken off too soon before the 
solder has cooled and " set," the joint may 
spring apart. When this happens for any rea- 
son the fact that both ends of the ring are 
probably coated with solder makes it possible 
to simply bind together again, wet with fluid 
and reheat. 

Resin. If resin or soldering stick is to be 
used, clean and bind the ring together as before, 

Fig. 5- 
heat slightly and apply the resin or stick to the 
joint, so that it is covered with melted resin as 
if with fluid. Apply the solder which also 
should be covered with melted resin and heat 
the work till the solder flows on. Scrape away 
the surplus resin afterwards. Some shops use 
for fluid, resin dissolved in alcohol. This makes 
a good flux. 


In case it is required to solder the ring flat on 
its side to a sheet of flat brass or copper, scrape 
the edge of the ring and that part of the plate 
on which it rests. See that the ring lies flat 
on the plate and then bind it in place tightly 
with iron wire passing about both pieces. See 
Fig. 5. It is best to leave the old wire wrapped 
around the ring so that it will not pull apart in 
reheating. Moisten the new joint thoroughly 
with fluid and put a number of small pieces of 
solder on the inside of the, ring about f of an 
inch apart as shown in the illustration. Care 
should be taken that the parts to be soldered be 
clean and then well moistened with soldering 

This job can be best heated with the flame 
underneath the flat plate until the solder melts 
when it will be seen to run along the joint and 
completely encircle the ring. Be careful not to 
overheat it. If heated from underneath hardly 
any trouble will be experienced. 

A simple way to handle such work is to rest 
it on an old bread toaster and play on the under- 
side of it with a flame, or rest the whole piece 
of work on a live bed of charcoal until the solder 

However, if heated from the top, the flame 
must be kept from touching the solder itself as 
experience will show. Heat the larger piece 
first always and allow the smaller to absorb 
the heat from the larger pieces. If other parts 


are also to be attached it must be borne in mind 
that since in order to solder them the whole 
plate has to be heated to the melting point of the 
solder, the former soldered work must be con- 
fined with wire or clamps or it will slide out of 
place and spoil the whole work. It may always 
be pushed back into place, however, if the solder 
is molten, but this leaves much solder where it 
is not wanted and is to be avoided as a " botch." 

Small Work such as pins, nuts, screws, etc. 
may be soldered on with the soldering copper 
as it confines the heat to the place where it is 
most needed. But again remember that both 
pieces must; be heated equally, that is, the part 
of the larger work which receives the smaller 
piece and the smaller piece itself. Sometimes 
both pieces to be joined are thoroughly scraped 
and a piece of pure tinfoil placed between the 
well moistened pieces and heat applied. This 
effects a perfect joint. 

Tinning. In attaching small pieces it is best 
to " tin " them by first cleaning, then moistening 
with fluid and melting a film of solder over the 
surface to be joined. This is easily done by 
placing bits of solder on the surface and apply- 
ing the heat. A stick or wire brush will help 
spread the solder while molten provided the 
stick or brush be first dipped into the soldering 


Supposing the work has been soldered and 
in order to make a neat job it is desired to scrape 
away the extra solder. This may be done by 
using the scraper for most of it, taking care, 
however, not to dig into anything but the sol- 
der so as not to fill the work itself with ugly 

A Handy Scraper is shown in Fig. 6. It is 
simply used as a hoe to pull the solder away. 

Methods of Holding Work 

Some work may not be conveniently wired 
together and so it is a good idea to make some 
small spring clamps from heavy iron wire. 
They are very useful. 

To make one, take a piece of i inch round 
iron wire about 4 inches long and flatten both 
ends on an anvil with a hammer as in Fig. 7. 
Then bend the ends together in an elongated 
form like Fig. 8. Squeeze the ends together in 
a vice to give them a spring and so hold to- 
gether whatever work you may have. That is 
so the clamp will hold it tightly of itself. Fig. 9. 

Supposing you have a brass ball to solder to 
a plate of copper. It would be impossible to 
safely wire the ball in place. A special clamp 
must be made for such work, pne end is flat- 
ened while the other is twisted around into an 
eye, Fig. 10. The eye will hold the ball safely 
in place as in Fig. 11. 

Having previously scraped tKe ball and plate, 
proceed to solder as before. ;i 

If any sort of accurate -work is demanded, 
time will be saved by making these simple little 
devices. This last job should be heated under- 


Fig. 6 

Fig- 7 

Fig. 8 

Fig. 9 

Fig. 10 

Fig. 11 



Perhaps it is required to solder a brass gear 
wheel or disk on to a steel shaft or rod with 
soft solder. Let us take for an example a case 
where the brass disk is made of flat metal, 

Fig. 12. 

rather thin, say %e inch, and is bored to fit the 
shaft or rod snugly. 

The best way to make a thoroughly good job 
and to insure having the disk square with the 
shaft, is to make an iron holder. 

The Holder is made by taking a square of 
sheet iron (Fig. 12.) the required size; first punch 


a round hole in the center into which the rod 
should fit snugly. Then cut eight slits in the 
sheet as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. 
Bend up the pieces l. 2. 3. 4. high enough to 
make a firm support for the disk, Fig. 13. By 

Fig. 13. 

using a small square you can then set the disk 
at right angles to the rod at the place where 
previously marked. The corners 5. 6. 7. 8. form 
legs for the holder. 
First slip the disk on to the rod and mark, 


with a sharp steel point, exactly the position 
where it is to go. Remove the brass disk and 
brighten the rod with emery cloth at the spot 
where the joint is to be made. Also scrape 
about the hole in the disk. Before slipping the 
disk on the rod, thoroughly moisten the rod at 
joint with fluid, so that when the disk is in place 
the fluid is between and about the joint. 

Lay a few pieces of solder about the joint and 
heat slowly, taking care to heat the steel rod 
as much as the disk and using all precautions. 
A neat strong joint should be the result. 

The holder takes very little time to make and 
is well worth while, because having the rod up- 
right gives the solder a chance to form a collar 
about the joint which it would not do as well if 
the rod were horizontal at the time of heating. 

To Solder to Steel or Iron the acid is always 
used because the resin does not work satisfac- 
torily. If any difficulty is experienced in making 
the solder stick to the shaft or rod, this might 
be tinned first, that is, coated over with solder 
where the joint is to^be made. This is done be- 
fore the disk is slipped on, by moistening the 
rod with fluid (some use pure muriatic acid) 
heating it and then touching the rod at the joint 
with a stick of solder wet with the fluid. As 
soon as the proper degree of heat has been 
reached the solder should flow on to the rod and 
stick only at the place which has been moistened 


with the fluid. Care must be taken to remove the 
flame from the rod when applying the solder 
or else the flame will melt the solder away be- 
fore it reaches the rod. If the solder does not 
stick well moisten the rod afresh with a fluid- 
charged brush and brush the hot solder about 
until that part of the rod is thoroughly " tinned." 
If the disk to be attached is of galvanised iron 
pure muriatic acid will prove best as a flux. 
But the ordinary soldering fluid described will 
be found satisfactory in most cases. 

Soldering Brass Castings. Sometimes it is 
desired to solder a rather heavy brass casting 
fast to a sheet of brass or copper, for instance a 
pipe connection to a tank or some other similar 

For example take a brass cylinder casting. 
This we desire to close up at one end by a thin 
sheet of copper. The heavy casting should be 
first thoroughly scraped at the place where it is 
desired to attach the copper sheet. Then moisten 
the joint thoroughly with fluid and stand the 
casting up so that the joint is on top and as 
level as possible. The work should rest on an 
asbestos mat or old brick, so that when heated 
the heat will be retained as long as possible. 
Asbestos and brick are poor heat conductors. 

Heat the cylinder carefully and avoid playing 
the flame on soldering fluid until the solder melts 
and runs easily over the end, tinning it thor- 


oughly. The flow of the solder may be helped 
with a brush charged with fluid. 

A Stiff Bristle Brush may safely be used and 
it might be well to add that it should be care- 
fully washed after wetting with acid, as the acid 
will eat away the brass or tin bristle holder. 

Let the cylinder cool down until the solder 
freezes or "sets." Then having previously 
scraped the plate to which the cylinder is to be 
attached, moisten it and the tinned end of the 
casting with the fluid, and turn the tinned face 
of the cylinder down on the plate to be soldered. 

Apply the heat to the heavy casting as illus- 
trated in Fig. 14, and not to the plate. The 
copper plate will absorb enough heat from the 
casting. The flame should be played around so 
as to heat the work evenly. When sufficiently 
heated it will be found to have sweated fast 
so that very little solder shows. 

Tin Foil Solder. A sheet of tin foil well 
charged with fluid placed between two parts to 
be joined then heated makes a very snug joint, 
but the first method is recommended for begin- 

It must be remembered that if a closed cylin- 
der is to be made by soldering flat pieces over 
each end so as to make it air tight that heating 
it sufficiently to make the solder flow will also 
cause the moisture and air inside to expand and 


exert considerable pressure so that a small hole 
should be drilled somewhere to let this air out 
and avoid the possibility of holes being blown 
through the molten solder. The hole may be 
easily plugged up afterwards. 

This is particularly the case if a small metal 
ball is to be made from two pieces. One piece 

Fio. 14. 

should be made larger than the other so as to 
form a ledge or gutter to hold the bits of solder 
and a hole drilled through one of the pieces. 
The whole job must fee held together by a clamp 
made with an eye at each end. Fig. 15. If the 
ball is to be screwed or riveted on to other work 


it may be so£t soldered, but it makes a much 
better job to hard solder it. This operation will 
be described later. If it is to be soft soldered to 
something else, it will be difiScult to hold the 
two halves of the ball together while soldering 

■ after having filed the ledge away. However, 
it may be done with care. 

Plast«r-of-Paris Resist. If it is desired to soft 
solder a number of pieces together and there is 
no way to hold them firmly in place while addi- 
tions are made, plaster-of-paris should be mixed 
to a stiff paste with water, using a large propor- 
tion of plaster. This makes a good " resist " 
and should be built up about the all-ready sol- 
dered parts so as to hold them firmly in position 
(Fig. i6). Then we may proceed to solder the 
others in place, since the plaster will quickly set 
under the heat. But such work is best when hard 
soldered if it does not have a plating or coloring 
that would disappear in the hotter fire necessary 
for hard soldering. 

One of the great advantages of soft solder 
is the lower degree of heat required to make a 


joiat with it. In hard soldering the degree of 
heat required to melt the silver or brass solder 
often warps thin metals out of shape or takes the 
temper out of steel, so that its use is confined to 
special work. 

For instance a jeweler in soldering a pin shank 
on to a scarf pin proper uses soft solder be- 

cause it is often much handier after the stone 
is in place. 

Stones or Gems used in decorative work will 
not stand heating successfully beyond the melt- 
ing point of soft solder. The pin shanks are 
made of german silver usually because of the 
hard springy quality of that metal. A red heat 
is necessary to hard solder and that would take 
away this springy quality by annealing the pins. 
It is frequently necessary for the jeweler to at- 
tach new pins to delicate settings perhaps con- 
taining very valuable stones which it is not 
desirable to remove. In tljat case soft solder is 


used to fill the small cup which is attached to 
the pin. The jeweler accomplishes this by tak- 
ing the pin in his pincers and holding the cup 
which has been well moistened inside with fluid 
over a small flame and touching it almost in- 
stantly with a small bar of solder which melts 
into the cup. This is allowed to cool, then re- 
charged with soldering fluid laid on the setting 
while a small pin point flame is directed on to 
the back of the cup when the two metals quickly 
become attached. This is allowed to cool care- 
fully and slowly as water would probably spoil 
the stone by chilling it too quickly. 

Cooling. ' Small jobs which it is necessary to 
cool in a certain supported position may be very 
easily cooled with water squirted from a foun- 
tain pen filler. 

Tinning A Bowl. It is often desirable to tin a 
copper or brass bowl, that is to line it with tin. 
Having previously made the inside bright with 
emery cloth, it is an easy matter to swab the 
soldering solution about with a swab made of 
oakum bound fast to a stick. Heat the bowl 
gently over a charcoal fire or gas flame and melt 
in it some pure block tin. Paint the whole in- 
side with the melted tin, using the same oakum 
swab, and throw away the surplus. Care should 
be taken not to get the bowl too hot. 

These problems ought to give an idea of the 


simple ways of applying soft solder to a large 
variety of work and an idea of what can be 
accomplished without the aid of the soldering 
copper which is so often associated with soft 

The Soldering Copper has its own particular 
uses and in some trades, such as the tinners and 
the plumbers, a very large percentage of the 
soldered work is done in this way. The sol- 
dering copper (Fig. 17) consists of a piece of 

Fig. 17. 

copper firmly held in an iron handle which has 
a wooden hand grip at its other end. This is 
usually heated in a small charcoal furnace or 
gas flame. 

The Charcoal Furnace may be easily carried 
about from place to place and is used for outdoor 
work. (Fig. 37). The copper should never be 
heated in a common coal fire, say in the kitchen 
range, as an amateur is apt to do. A common 
wood fire is a very good substitute. The coal- 
fire spoils the working or tinned end of the cop- 
per by the actions of the sulphur in the fire. 

It is easy to make a small copper weighing 
only a few ounces (see directions in Chapter 


VII). But unless the amateur has more than 
his usual facilities for casting, forging, etc., he 
had much better buy a large one weighing from 
a pound and a half to two pounds for general 

It will probably need to be filed to a flat wedge- 
shaped point (Fig. 17) and a coarse file is best for 
this work. If very blunt do not try to beat the 
copper red hot and forge it into shape over an 
anvil as you have seen a blacksmith forge iron. 
It will probably break oflf in chunks. The way 
to forge copper is to heat it red hot and then 
quench it in cold water which softens it, then 
hammer while cold. After a bit it will harden 
up and want to be re-softened again, so repeat 
the heating and cooling as often as necessary. 

Since the copper carries the molten solder on 
its point to the work this part must first be 
" tinned," covered with tin or solder. An easy 
way to accomplish this is after having previously 
cleaned and heated the copper so it will melt 
solder easily to place some powdered resin on 
an old sheet of scrap tin, rub hot copper back 
and forth on each of its faces until the point is 
covered with a good coat of tin for at least f 
inch. Having done this, care must be taken 
not to get the iron too hot or it will destroy 
the tinning on the end. It should never be al- 
lowed to become red-hot, but only hot enough to 
melt the solder at the instant of contact. It is a 
good plan to have an old dampened piece of rag 



to wipe the point of the iron on as it comes 
from the fire. Some prefer to use an old brick 
for this or a sandy floor but the rag does very 
well. If no scrap tin is about, the iron may be 
easily tinned by first applying soldering fluid, 
then solder, having the iron of course hot. 

Joining Sheets of Metal. One of the most use- 
ful things to know is how to solder two ends of 

Fig. i8. 

sheet tin or brass together. Soft solder has not 
great strength and it is the usual practice to 
fold the metal into a seam that only requires 
the solder to hold it in place, and make it water 
tight. To solder the joint is very simple. 

First scrape the joint bright and then melt 
resin along the joint or run soldering fluid 
along it. For a short seam, enough solder may 
be picked up on the point of the copper once it 



is hot enough and conveyed to the joint. But 
for larger seams the solder is held alongside 
(Fig. 18) or on top of the pointed end so that it 
melts and runs along the seam with the hot cop- 
per (Fig. 19). In this way the solder is fairly 
melted in the job. Small pellets of solder may 
be put along the seam and melted on by drawing 

Fig. 19. 

the copper along it. Keep the copper hot, if a 
large piece of work is to be done. 

Do not put the solder on when it is in a 
" slushy " condition or does not run freely from 
lack of heat in the iron and it looks grey in- 
stead of bright like quicksilver. 

The advantage of the copper is that it places 
the heat just where it is needed and except at 
point of contact does not greatly heat up the rest 
of the work. It is of special value for joining 
pieces of sheet tin together.'' 


Common Sheet Tin is a thin plate of rheet 
iron coated on both sides with block tin. 

In all thin sheet metal work the copper is 
generally used, since the direct heating would 
warp and discolor it. The metal often covers 
wood and it would be impossible for many rea- 
sons to use anything save the copper. It should 
be remembered that the work must be perfectly 
clean and freshly scraped to do good soldering. 

It is sometimes desirable for the jeweler to 
attach a chain to a locket, with one connecting 
link, and the locket is perhaps made of plated 
ware or has a jewel in it that will not stand the 
heat. The connecting link then has to be neatly 
soft soldered. 

With such a small link it is only practical to do 
the job with a light jeweler's soldering copper. 
The link must be first scraped clean about the 
joint and then held up in some such manner that 
it is easy to get at. 

For ordinary work an old mechanical draw- 
ing pen makes a most excellent device. This 
may be held firmly in the vise by the handle 
and the jaws opened .a bit by the thumb screw 
to take in the link. This will allow the locket 
to hang down on one side and the chain down, 
on the other so both are out of the way as in Fig. 
20. All that remains to be done is to have the 
copper well tinned and heated and the joint 
thoroughly moistened with fluid. Pick up a 
small drop of solder and touch the joint 


with it. Hold the iron there a second as the 
link must be thoroughly heated to make the sol- 
der entirely fill the joint. With too little heat 
it is apt to stick on the top side and leave the 
actual gap open. The residue may be scraped 
away and the joint plated to match the metal 
of the chain. 

Some artisans use pure tin for this instead of 
solder as the tin is a whiter color. However, 
tin does not solder so easily. The flame may be 
used in connection with the copper, heating the 
larger parts to the melting point of the solder 
and the smaller ones with the iron. Never try 
to solder a small wire to a heavy casting without 
first heating the casting. A short piece of copper 
wire set in pincers or a wooden handle may be 
used to place the solder into tiny corners where 
it would not otherwise go. The wire of course 
being hot. 

There are many shapes of coppers. A glance 
into any good tool dealer's catalog will show the 
different forms devised for special work. The 
common type will do for most all work however. 
For those who can afford it there is on the 
market an electric soldering iron that maintains 
a constant heat of the right degree and this is 
indeed a great convenience. But by fixing the 
principles of the art of soldering firmly in ones 
mind and experimenting and by not being afraid 
to make a mistake the most ordinary apparatus 
may be successfully used. 

Hard Soldering or Brazing 

Some forms of hard and soft soldering are 
carried out by exactly the same manner of oper- 
ation, the only difference being in the solder, 
the flux, and the degrees of heat required. 

Hard Soldering requires a much greater tem- 
perature since silver or brass are generally used 
as solder and borax in some form as a flux. A 
much stronger flame is needed ; that of a current 
of gas and air under pressure being preferred, or 
a gasoline or alcohol torch. In large heavy work 
the blacksmith's forge, a charcoal fire or a speci- 
ally heavy blast of gas or gasoline is used. As 
in soft soldering the work must be thoroughly 
cleaned and scraped bright first. 

The Silver Soldet is not pure silver, the 
common form being made up of f silver and J 
brass, cast into a flat ingot and rolled out to a 
thin sheet about ^/^^ inch thick. This is best 
obtained from some reputable dealer in gold and 
silver for the jewellers trade. That handled by 
most tool and hardware houses is made up for 
soldering band-saws, etc., and is usually a cheap 




grade containing lead and sometimes zinc in too 
great a proportion. Although these metals make 
the solder flow easily, they are disastrous since 
they will pit and eat holes in silver work when 
the silver is red hot. Copper is even thus 

The fact that pure silver is alloyed with brass 
makes it melt at a temperature slightly lower than 
that of the pure silver itself, hence the value 
of it in the building up of articles of silver into 
elaborate and complicated forms. 

Copper may not be soldered with Copper but 
it may be soldered or brazed with brass 
which is an alloy of copper and zinc, melting 
at a lower temperature than the copper when 
properly fluxed with borax. 

Silver Solder is generally used to solder small 
articles in copper, brass, bronze, silver and ger- 
man silver. 

Iron and steel are usually soldered or brazed 
with brass. Though silver solder is used even 
for small steel or iron objects. In large work 
it is too expensive and brass is stronger and 
better suited for such work. 

Gold is usually soldered with gold of a lower 
grade or carat. For instance twenty-two carat 
gold may be soldered with eighteen carat; eight- 


een carat with fourteen; fourteen with ten, etc. 
It is simply soldering the gold with an alloy 
of gold, gold and copper or gold and silver. 
Gold may be soldered with silver solder but the 
color is not always satisfactory, though it takes 
up a certain amount of the gold color. 

The Indians use pure silver filings mixed with 
saliva for soldering their silver work and this 
works fairly well as the heat attacks the smaller 
particles first and melts them. However, borax 
is better flux than saliva. 

Aluminum is usually soldered with a specially 
prepared solder which is best purchased with 
complete directions, for using. Care should be 
taken, however, to heat both pieces of the work 
to be soldered, up to the melting point of the 
solder. As Aluminum is a soft metal melting 
at a low temperature it does not come under the 
head of hard soldering. 

Let us suppose we have to hard solder a 3 inch 
copper ring made from J inch round rod. First 
clean the joint thoroughly about the edges with 
the scraper. If freshly cut with a saw or file on 
which there was no oil or grease only the metal 
about the joint need be scraped. The ring being 
made of heavy copper is likely to expand to a 
great extent and thus pull the ends apart. Care 
should be taken to bind it with wire, as shown in 
Fig. 21, across and below center. Then bring 
an upward pressure to bear on it with the wire 


tightly twisted at the top of ring. So much for 
the preparation of the ring, for soldering. 

Borax in some shape is always used as the 
flux. In large work it is the powdered form that 

Fig. 21. 

is employed. In the smaller work it is much 
better to grind up lump borax on a slate block 
specially prepared for the purpose (Fig. 22) 
to a rather creamy consistency, using a large 
lump of borax, which may be easily held in the 
fingers and worked about with a circular niotioa 


on the block, which is hollowed out and contains 
about a tablespoonful of water. 

Care should be taken to lay the borax lump 
aside, clear of the water, not in it, as this will 
tend to make it crumble. 

Silver Solder usually comes in a thin sheet. 
A piece about ij inches by 3 inches by '/ei inch 
may be had for about 25c. in New York. Cut up 

Fic. 22. 

a small strip 14e i"*^h wide by 3 inches long and 
scrape it bright. Cut little pieces about 3^6 >"ch 
square from this strip with a pair of shears and 
drop them into the borax mixture in the block. 
Eight of these pieces will be about enough for 
this job, but each piece of solder must be thor- 
oughly covered with the wet borax. 

Now dip a small brush into the wet borax 
and smear the solution between and above the 



joint in the ring, thoroughly covering the part 
to .be soldered. The solder will not ruh properly 
if this is not carefully applied. Put on plenty of 
the borax solution but only where you want the 
solder to flow. An injudicious use of the borax 
will muss up the work, and lead the solder away 
from the joint itself. 

While the borax is still in a wet pasty state, 
apply small pieces of solder, picked up in the 
points of a pair of tweezers (Fig. 23) and not 
with the fingers or any old thing at hand. 

Small pieces may be picked up on the tip of 
the brush with which the borax is applied, but 

Fig. 23. 

the tweezers are best. Place the solder above 
the joint where it will rest naturally but do not 
pile the pieces up. Keep them separated. The 
smaller the solder is cut the better it will work 
since large pieces tend to run up into balls on 
account of receiving too much heat and are 
liable to cool in this form. The object of placing 
them on wet is so the borax will form a sort of 
cement in drying, which it would not do if they 
were applied dry. 

If intense heat is applied too soon it will make 


the borax " boil " or bubble up, often throwing 
the solder completely away from the work and 
throwing the latter out of place. The heat there- 
fore must be applied very slowly and gently. 
Difficult and elaborate work is usually first dried 
in an oven, so that the delicate parts may not be 
pushed away from each other when the borax 
expands under heat. For this reason also, it 
is best to use the lump borax ground with 

In order to melt the silver solder to the flowing 
point it is necessary to heat the copper ring to 
the melting point of the silver. This requires 
almost a white-heat. Now if one side of the 
joint is heated more than the other, the solder 
will flow on to the hottest part and will not ad- 
here to the cooler portion. Both sides of the 
joint must be equally heated. Care must be 
taken not to direct the heat on to the joint itself 
or on to the bits of solder until these melt from 
the heat received from the metal. If the flame 
is played on them they run up into little balls and 
either roll away or do not melt and flow further 
because of the oxide on them. 

It must always be remembered to let the solder 
melt from the heat transmitted by the metal and 
not the direct flame. 

The blow pipe best suited for this job is de- 
scribed in the chapter on apparatus (see Figs. 32 
and 33), although a gasoline blow torch would 
answer nicely. 


If the ring be suspended in the air and the 
flame directed on it, so much heat will be wasted 
that even with a very powerful flame it would be 
difficult to heat it sufficiently. The ring should 
be surrounded by some heat reflecting material 
such as asbestos, fire brick or charcoal, asbestos 

Fig. 24. 

being the best. The ring should rest in the 
corner of a two-sided box having a square bot- 
tom. (See Fig. 24.) 

The flame should be carefully directed above 
and not against the ring, until the borax whitens. 
Then it may be played back and forth over the 


part of the ring. When the melting point is 
reached the solder will be seen to " sweat " and 
suddenly dissolve into the joint and around it. 
Then the flame may be directed squarely on the 
joint for a sceond or two to complete the fusion. 
The ring should now be solidly soldered. 

It may then be plunged into the " pickle " bath 
which is a mixture of one part of sulphuric acid 

and ten parts of water. This is usually kept 
under the soldering bench in a stone jar, covered. 

The action of the water and acid is to eat away 
the oxide and scale formed by the heat. The 
work after immersion should be almost instantly 
removed from this bath and should come away 
clean and bright. It should then be dipped into 
clean water and dryed in a box of sawdust by 
tumbling it about until the sawdust absorbs all 
the moisture. If it is desirable to add more sol- 
der during the heating process or after the solder 


which was first placed on has melted, simply 
place more solder, well covered with borax, on 
the hot joint and reheat. More borax may be 
added while the ring is still hot. This will often 
help a stubborn bit of solder to flow. 

If the Solder refuses to melt, look to the way 
you are heating your ring. If this does not 
remedy it cool it in water only and scrape afresh, 
applying more borax and new solder. 

Silver solder will not fill up a hole or gap 
unless the operation is in very expert hands, 
and care must be taken to have the joints fit 
tightly together. No matter how tight the joint 
is the solder will fill it and the smaller the 
amount of solder used the stronger will be the 

If the ring had been made of flat sheet metal 
instead of rod like the ring used to illustrate 
soft soldering (Fig. 25) and it is desired to sol- 
der it on its side to a flat sheet of copper we must 
proceed as follows: 

Let us take as an example a case where the 
ring has been soldered together with hard-solder. 

First scrape the side of the ring that is to be 
placed next the plate. Then scrape the plate 
thoroughly at the point of contact with the ring 
and bind the latter in position with iron wire. 
Apply borax about the joint and also a number 
of small pieces of solder %^ inch square, J inch 
apart. Lay them inside the ring as indicated in 


Fig. 25. Then dry the borax with a gentle 
heat so that it turns white. If the first joint 
made in the ring is not protected it will very- 
likely open and the solder will flow into the 
larger body of molten solder which seems to 
exert a strong attraction for it. Therefore, this 
must be protected with an earthy mixture such 
as rouge and water, crocus and water or plaster- 
of-paris and water. 

Rouge, which is the best, is an oxide of iron 
and comes in the form of a fine red powder. A 
paste should be mixed to the consistency of house 
paint and placed in an old saucer. Use care not 
to make it too wet and then apply it to both 
sides of the joint as indicated in Fig. 25, by the 
darkened portion. Great care should be taken, 
however, not to allow the smallest particle of 
the rouge to touch where the new joint is to be 
made. This will happen if it contains too much 
water. The object of drying the borax first is 
so that the rouge will not mix with it. 

If the iron wires are very thin they had better 
be covered with rouge as it will keep them from 
burning apart. 

Heating. The work is now ready for heating. 
This should be done very carefully, avoiding the 
pieces of solder, remembering to heat the larger 
pieces first and keeping the flame constantly 
moving so as to heat the whole piece equally. 


Remember that the ring which is probably lighter 
and on top is apt to get most of the heat, so heat 
up the back plate first. 

If the ring should be very small in proportion 
to the plate it would probably absorb enough 
heat from the larger piece to melt the solder 
without the flame touching the ring. This must 
be thoroughly understood. When the solder has 
run dip the work in the " pickle " and clean. If 
it is desired to attach some smaller pieces, such 
as brass knobs or nuts, to the back plate, pro- 
ceed as before. 

First secure the joints already made, by paint- 
ing them with rouge. Carefully heat the larger 
portion first with a constantly moving flame. 
Do not heat one portion of the work first, if sev- 
eral joints are to be soldered. Heat the whole 
thing up at once so that all the joints are done 
at one time. 

Do not direct* the flame on one portion of the 
work. Keep it moving about constantly to ob- 
tain an even heat and avoid overheating the 
wires. , 

If the piece of work is rather large for the 
flame at hand, it is a good plan to surround the 
work with a number of pieces of charcoal making 
a wall of it, so that it retains the heat and helps 
to keep the temperature even all about. Old 
pieces of broken brick are also very useful. All 
this of course is to be done on a suitably pro- 
tected bed of asbestos or brick or even cinders. 


Sometimes work is heated up on a matted bunch 
of old fine iron wire called a " devil." 

Small pieces of work which are moved out of 
position while the solder is molten may be pushed 
in place with a pointed iron wire. 

It sometimes happens in making jewelry that 
while soldering on silver balls or small rings 
that they are strongly attracted by the larger 
heated bodies of metal, or the molten solder, and 
in that case a judicious use of the iron wire is 
very helpful in replacing them. 

Or if it is desired to remove a piece of work 
this may be done by first protecting the other 
parts with rouge, then heating the solder to the 
melting point and lifting the work off. It will 
be found to cling rather tenaciously, however, 
and care will be required to successfully perform 
the operation. 

The Whole Secret of Hard Soldering is to 
keep the work clean, to have the joint and solder 
well covered with borax, and to heat both parts 
to be joined slowly and equally. 

Copper should be experimented with before 
silver as copper melts at a much higher tem- 
perature than silver; therefore there is less 
chance of " burning up " the work when first 
starting in. 

The Melting Point of Sterling Silver is only a 


little above that of ordinary silver-solder and 
great care is required to avoid melting up the 

The flame must always be in proportion to 
the work, using the largest flame possible on 
large work and the smallest on small work. 

Any sort of object may be built up, and any 
number of joints made if they are carefully pro- 
tected by rouge while the new joints are being 

Sometimes small pieces of silver wire or fili- 
gree are to be soldered together and there is no 
way of holding them together by clamps or wire. 

Charcoal Block. An especially prepared block 
of charcoal is used that does not burn away 
quickly and the work held in position by ordinary 
steel pins well rouged. (Fig. 26). The little 
balls may be laid up against the work so that 
they will adhere if carefully heated. A soft 
earthenware brick and a compressed asbestos 
pad are also obtainable for this purpose. 

The solder should be applied at each joint. 
If it is desirable to attach other pieces it may be 
done by covering the joints as they are soldered 
thick with rouge. Experience and patience alone 
will help here. 

At times it is necessary to solder together a 
solid metal wire or handle, that has been broken. 
It is often impossible to wire this or clamp it 
and so the best way to make a strong job is to 


make a lap joint and put in a rivet of silver or 
other metal. File the work up bright and cover 
well with borax and some small bits of solder. 
Then fuse it together. By using borax two pieces 
of silver may be " sweated " together exactly the 

same as hard soldering without the solder, but 
this is hard to do and experience only will tell 
when 'it is desirable. 

Pickle Bath. The cold pickle described will 
do for most of the common metals, but for silver 
and gold a hot pickle is generally used. This is 
composed of one part of sulphuric or nitric acid 


to ten parts of hot water and is usually kept at 
almost boiling point in a small stone crock which 
is placed in a bath of hot water (Fig. 27) on a 
gas stove near the blow pipe. 

The work is placed in this to " boil out," and 
should come out in a minute or so perfectly free 
from all dirt and oxide. Care should be taken 
lest it be left in too long or the acid will play 
havoc with the work, attacking the solder first. 

Great precaution should be taken in all hard 
soldering that no soft solder, lead or tin be near 

Fic 27. 

to the work when the copper is heated for hard 
soldering. This is particularly true of silver for 
the lead will eat holes clear through the work 
and usually ruins it. If the work in hard sol- 
dering becomes all pitted you may rest assured 
there is lead present or that you are using an 
impure quality of solder, or the solder may have 
too much zinc added to it. Only such zinc as is 
contained in the brass should mix with the silver. 
There are many grades of silver solder made 
for special purposes, but these are of ho use ex- 


cept to the experienced and to the trade. One 
grade, however, is almost always used. 

It must also be remembered at all times to bind 
and clamp the work together firmly and to sup- 
port it well, for when it is hot the metal bends 
easily and may sag out of shape. So that 
special rouge-covered sheet-iron supports must 
be arranged, clamps made, and' binding wire 
freely used. 

Silver Work should never be put into pickle 
with iron binding wiring attached or picked out 

from it with iron tongs as the acid acting with 
the iron will tend to put a heavy copper deposit 

on the work in spots. 

Brazing. A word as to heavy brazing perhaps 
would not be out of place, but this book is not 
intended as a text-book on this art since it is in 
a class by itself. 


It is identically the same as hard soldering ex- 
cepting pure brass is used as a solder or 
" spelter." The work should be thoroughly 
filed and clamped or riveted together, then wet 

powdered borax is plentifully applied and the 
grain spelter, little globules of brass as it comes 
for this purpose or bits of clean sheet brass may 
be used above the joint and well covered with 
the wetted borax. 

In some shops a powerful double gasoline 


torch is used (Fig. 28). As the flames come from 
one given direction, bricks will have to be ar- 
ranged as reflectors to direct the heat where it is 
needed until the joint runs. 

If it is observed that there is not enough 
spelter to hold the work or fill the joint, dry 
powdered borax may be thrown on the hot work 
and more spelter added or the joint touched with 
a long brass wire which melts instantly on it. 

If the weld is to be made in a charcoal fire 
or blacksmith forge care should be taken to build 
the fire up like the crater of a volcano so that a 
column of white flame shoots up onto the work 
which is embedded near the top of the fire 
(Fig. 29). A constant blast should be main- 
tained and the bellows worked evenly and slowly 
for sudden heating will heat the lower half of 
work too much. Care »should be taken that 
plenty of coke or charcoal is placed over the work 
to reflect the heat down. 

The work should be watched carefully and re- 
moved the instant it is brazed, and then quenched 
with cold water. 

Cleaning up Work. Polishing 

Soldered work frequently requires cleaning up 
and removing the surplus solder and flux with a 
scraper or an old file. Sometimes it is removed 
with an emery wheel, and ground quickly down 
to the original metal, leaving only sufficient sol- 
der to hold the work safely. This can be done 
with the sharp steel scraping instrument (Fig. 
3) after the work has been properly " pickled." 
A scraper of the hoe or plow type (Fig. 6) is 
used mostly for this work. Care should be taken 
that the original metals are not marred or deeply 
scored by the scrapers which will make ugly 
scratches that can be removed only by a great 
deal of work with small curved " riffle " files. 

Scraping Down. After scraping down to the 
bare metal the next step is to smooth the metal 
up to the original smooth surface and this is best 
done by taking a piece of " Scotch Stone " (Fig. 
30) about three-eighths of an inch square, and 
some six inches in length. Grind this to a blunt 
wedge that fits into the joint roughly. Rubbing 
back and forth with the stone moistened with 
water will quickly wear away the roughened 
metal to the required smoothness. 



Too much water should not be used but only- 
enough to lubricate the stone. After this a " red" 
or rotten stone should be used in the same way 
to remove the scratches left by the Scotch stone. 

These stones are of great advantage in reach- 
ing' points that may not be polished otherwise as 
they are easily ground to fit any work. 

An ordinary slate pencil will do very well if 
the Scotch stone is not at hand. In fact almost 

any soft blue stone will do, but the Scotch stone 
is best. 

Finishing. Pine sticks or orange wood, shaped 
like a lead pencil may be dipped into cutting 
down composition which is a mixture of emery 
and wax that comes ready for use. The work- 
ing end of the stick is to be rubbed into this 


mixture and when rubbed over the work will 
smooth it up still more. 

Still a finer finish may be given by pith sticks 
of elder and rouge composition and then perhaps 
rubbing with felt. 

Buff Sticks. What are known as " hand buff " 
sticks are very useful in polishing; they consist 
of sticks or flat handles of wood with strips of 
leather and felt glued to them. These are simply 
charged with the cutting down compound and 
rouge compound and rubbed against the work. 

In large work after removing the surplus sol- 
der with a file or coarse emery wheel, either a 
finer emery wheel, or a carborundum wheel is 
used to remove the scratches left by the rougher 
wheel and then smoothing on a leather wheel 
of walrus-hide on which the cutting down com- 
position has been rubbed while it is revolving. 

A Final Polish is usually given by a cotton 
buff wheel which is run at a high rate of speed. 
Such a wheel is made of layers of cotton cloth 
so that the centrifugal force flings the edges of 
the cloth disks against the metal with sufficient 
force to polish^ it. This is charged with the 
rouge composition. 

Files that are not to be used for any other 
work should be kept for filing away soft solder, 
which fills them up completely so that the teeth 



will not bite. Coarse files may be cleaned, how- 
ever. Sometimes sticks of carborundum or 
emery are used in the hollows where the revolv- 
ing emery wheel may not go. Such work should 
then be finished up with the Scotch stone. 

Burnisher. Bright work may be burnished 
with a steel burnisher which is a smooth, highly 


Fig. 31. 

wooden handle 

polished instrument set in a 
(Fig. 31). 

This is grasped firmly in the hand and the 
point of the tool worked about on the metal, 
until it smooths up. The body of the tool may 
be used as well as the edges. 

Standard Apparatus 

Since there are a number of ways to heat up 
the metals to the melting point of the different 
solders it is thought best to describe them al- 
together in one chapter so that the reader may 
choose those best suited to his needs and con- 
ditions. It should be remembered that it takes 
no particular kind of heat to melt the solders, 

Fig. 32. 

but the several convenient forms of applying 
it are here described. 

Blow Pipe. The most commonly used tool 
for this is the blow-pipe (Figs. 32 and 33), which 
consists of two pipes, one to conduct the air un- 
der slight pressure and the other the gas. The 
gas and air mix near the end, forming a powerful 
blue fla'me free from soot of any kind. It may 
easily be^cdntroUed with the valves in the sepa- 
rate tubes (Pig. 32). 



The air is supplied from a foot bellows, through 
a flexible rubber tube, or in large shops from a 
positive pressure blower. The idea being to get 
a large volume of air under low pressure. The 
highly compressed air used for power purposes 

is seldom used unless with a special defusing 

The Foot Bellows is very satisfactory and its 
action simple. It has a rubber disk reservoir 
which makes possible a steady blast. A slow 
steady pumping movement is better than a short 
" choppy " one since it accomplishes the work 
sooner. The gas pipe should be connected to 
the gas-main with a flexible tube; the other 
tube connects the bellows with the air pipe. 


The gas should be turned on first and then a 
lighted match applied to the burner, then the 
bellows pumped fast enough to supply sufficient 
air pressure to produce a blue flame which is 
hottest at the tip of the inner blue cone. 

For general shop work a blow-pipe with tubes 
about f inch inside diameter is most useful. 

The craftsmen in the country may obtain a 
gasoline outfit which works practically the same ; 

Fig. 34- 

the only difference is that instead of attaching 
the blow pipe to the gas main it is attached to 
a small gasoline tank and the gasoline vapor 
used through a special blow pipe. A foot bel- 
lows supplies the air. 

Gasoline Torch. Next best to this is the gas- 
oline torch (Fig. 34). There are a number of 
these on the market and when good care is taken 


of them they work very well indeed. They are 
usually lighted by pouring a little alcohol or 
gasoline into cup A and heating burner B until 
upon turning handle C slightly a blue flame i^ 
produced at the end of B. 

Some forms have a pump attached to make a 
pressure which forces the gasoline up to the 

Fig. 35. 

burner. In this case the cup A is allowed to col- 
lect the drip, the handle C closed and A lighted. 
When after a time C is turned on again there 
should be a blue flame at the end of B. Great 
care should be used in handling these as some 
frightful accidents have happened from lighting 
them when not tightly stoppered. 

Alcohol Blow Torch. For small work an alco- 


hol blow torch is frequently used. This consists 
of a thick wick enclosed in a brass fount filled 
with alcohol (Fig. 35). A small brass pipe is 
affixed to the side to which is attached a piece 
of flexible tube and mouthpiece. A current of 
air is blown through this pipe across the wick and 
forms a long slender flame and an extremely 
powerful one considering its size. 

Another more common form of blow pipe is a 
hollow brass tube, on one end of which is a 

Fig. 36. 

mouth-piece; the other end tapers down to a 
point having a pin hole in it. This is used across 
a fat alcohol or gas flame to direct a tiny pointed 
flame against very small work. It is often used 
but requires some little practice, 

Bunsen, Burner. The bunsen flame is pro- 
duced by the bunsen burner, which mixes a 
natural draught of air with the gas and makes 
a hot blue flame much used for direct heating. 
It is especially useful to suspend work over in 


soft or hard soldering. The air is admitted by 
the holes in the side of the pipe, and the gas 
comes in through a small opening. The hottest 
part is at the tip of the inner blue cone in Eame. 

Charcoal is still used abroad to solder with. 
Some of the most beautiful and the. most dif- 

Fig. 37- 

ficult work has been done by this simple method. 
The live charcoal is held in a brazier (Fig. 36) 
or basket and the work carefully placed on the 
hot coals and the charcoal backed up above it 
A pair of long nosed bellows is used to direct 
the flame where wanted most. 


Soldering Iron Furnace. For the heating of 
soldering irons a gas-furnace may be used to ad- 
vantage or the common form of charcoal furnace 
(Fig. 37) made from sheet iron. The capper 
is placed at the bottom of the fire on the grate 
or the copper may be heated by a bunsen burner 
or even in a wood fire, never in a coal fire. 


Home Made Apparatus 

Bunsen Burner. A very simple way to make 
this useful article is to take a piece of f inch 
inside diameter brass tubing about 7 inches long. 
Bore two %« i^ich holes in it about ij inches 
from the end. This is easily done by first 
drilling through both sides of the tube with a 
i inch drill, and then using a larger drill to follow 
this lead. Care should be taken not to tear the 


Fig. 38. 

metal with the large drill as it is only thin brass 
tubing. A good way to prevent this is to jam 
a round stick in and let it form an inside support 
for the tube while drilling. Now take a piece 
of f inch outside diameter brass tubing 3J inches 
in length. This must fit snugly into the larger 
tube for about i inch. Take an ordinary alum- 
inum gas tip and drill out the end to %e 
inch diameter and drive the tip firmly into the 
end of the smaller tube. (Fig. 38.) Attach this 



to a gas tubing and slip the larger tube over the 
burner tip until this shows plainly through the 
air holes. Turn on the gas and light it. Then 
slide the larger tube up and down slightly until 
the best blue flame is obtained. 

This burner should give a flame about 8 inches 
in length easily. When the best mixture of air 
and gas is obtained, make a mark on both tubes 
as a position guide for soldering. Turn off the 
gas and soft solder the tubes together. 


Fig. 39. 

If desired the tubes may easily behard soldered 
by removing the aluminum tip. After hard sol- 
dering the two pipes together as previously 
marked, drop the aluminum tip down the larger 
pipe, guide the narrow end of tip into the smaller 
pipe and jam it firmly home with the aid of a 
small round stick inserted down the larger pipe. 

This bunsen burner is used at the end of a 
flexible rubber tube and is very useful in the 
metal shop. 

A Simple Blow Pipe. Get an old single gas 
bracket with stop cock attached and saw off the 



top just below where the burner is connected. 
See Fig. 39. These brackets are made of brass 
tubing about f in. inside diameter. Take a piece 
of f in. inside diameter brass tubing about 12 
inches long and bend it carefully so it may take 

Fig. 40. 

Fig. 41. 

the position of air pipe as indicated in Figs. 40 
and 41. This may be easily done by filling the 
tube with melted resin ; then cooling and bending 
over a round block of wood, afterwards melting 
the resin out. Drill a hole at A to receive the 
end of this pipe, stopping it about J in. from the 
end of B. Solder this in with soft solder and 
then take a piece of stiff sheet brass or copper 
and make a brace by cutting a slit in the middle 
of each end and bending the little laps thus pro- 


duced around each side of the tubing. Solder 
these as at C. Care should be taken to get the 
larger tube so that the air will be shot into the 
center of the flow of gas at D or else the flame 
may prove ragged and lopsided. 

The stop cock is an excellent means of <;ontrol 
for the size of the flame. The air pressure may- 
be regulated by the foot bellows. A small piece 
of pipe should be attached to the other end of 
the valve at E. Most gas connections are fitted 
to f in. gas pipe, which is f in. outside diameter 
and too large to fit conveniently on an ordinary 
gas tubing. This may be remedied by securing 
a f in. to i in. bushing from the pipe-fitter and 
screwing it into the valve, when a short piece of 
i in. pipe may easily be put into that. Some- 
times these small blow-pipes are used with a 
tube to the mouth instead of the foot bellows. 

A larger blow-pipe may be made of galvanized 
pipe and fittings, say ^ in. pipe. For this you 
will need one piece of pipe 12 inches long; -one 
piece 4 inches long and one piece 2 inches, all of 
these to be threaded ; one i in. stop cock, gas or 
valve; one i in. T piece; one i in. plug; one 
piece of J in. pipe, 16 inches long; one piece of 
1 in. pipe, 6 inches long; one J in. elbow. First 
screw the 12-inch piece of i in. pipe into the side 
connection of the T at A, Fig. 42 ; next the f our^- 



inch piece at B ; now screw in the i in. plug at 
C and drill it out so that the shorter piece of i in. 
pipe will fit snugly through it. Then make a 
cleaner fit by filing. Screw the pieces of i in. 
pipe into the elbow of the same dimensions and 

Fig. 42. 

slip the smaller end through plug at C until it 
comes within about f in. of the end of ^ in. pipe 
D. Then slip on brace E, which is made of thick 
sheet brass or copper. This may be either soft 
or hard soldered into place as also may the joint 
at C, since the blow-pipe rarely gets hot enough 
to disturb soft solder if there is a current of air 
forced through it. The stop cock may now be 
attached. If desired one may also be put on the 
J in. air supply pipe. This will be found to give 
a. very powerful flame. 

Foot Bellows. A good pair of foot bellows 
may be made as follows: From clear J in. pine 


boards make up three end pieces of the shape 
shown in Fig. 43, by gluing and cleating the 
boards together. It is best made of boards 6 
inches wide and cut down to the meaiurements 
after the boards have been fitted together. Make 
joints air tight by careful work in fitting and 
gluing together. The cleats should not be over 

Fio. 43, 

1 in. in height. Two of the end pieces require a 

2 in. hole drilled in their center as indicated in 
Fig. 43. A i in. hole may be drilled in the third 
end piece. Cut out two blocks of l in. planking 
3J in. by 3i in. Bevel one side of the two larger 
blocks as shown in Fig. 44. 

Take a piece of thin soft leather and cut out 
two pieces 3i in. by 5 inches, lay these on a flat 


surface, rough side uppermost and cover well 
with strong glue. Place one small and one large 
block on each piece of leather as indicated in 
Fig. 44, and put on top of the blocks a good heavy 
weight to make the leather adhere firmly to the 

Fro. 45. 

blocks when the glue is dry. The smaller block 
A is secured to the boards with two screws, and 
B forms the cover for, the inlet valve. Fig, 45 
shows these two valve covers in position. 
Now attach the three boards together by 


hinges i and 2 at the smaller end, Fig. 45; foiir 
hinges will be required, two for the top board to 
the center and two for the center board to the 
bottom board. These hinges are put inside, see 

Fig. 45. 

Place a heavy spring between boards A and B 

and secure firmly with staples (an old bed spring 

will do). 

Procure a large sheet of paper, upon which to 

make your pattern for the bellows leather. 

Pattern for Bellows Leather. Stand the bel- 
lows on its edge on the sheet of paper with the 
hinges on the left hand. This will give you the 
thickness of the bellows by the hinges, which is 
indicated by two pencil marks, one on each side 
of the boards. Open the bellows in front about 
6 or 8 inches, hold bellows firmly with left hand 
and draw a pencil mark from left to right, first 
on one side and then on the other. Roll bellows 
forward slowly to the right on to the front edges 
marking the paper on both sides with the pencil 
until you have rolled the boards onto the oppo- 
site side edges and the back stands perpendicular 
but with the hinges to the right, being careful 
to keep the bellows open the same width all the 
time. This can be done by tacking a strip of 
wood across the front before proceeding to draw 
the pattern. 

The length of this rough diagram will be 
equivalent to the measurement from the back on 


one side around the edge of the board to the 
corner on the other side. The width of the 
boards at the back must now be allowed tor, in- 
cluding 2 inches for the lap, see Fig. 48. This 
will give a rough outline of the shape the leather 

■ Fig. 46. 

should be, see Fig. 46. The widest part of the 
drawing should be equivalent to the front part 
of the bellows fully extended, allowing enough 
leather to properly cover the edges of the out- 

side boards. The narrowest end should be wide 
enough to cover the hinges and lap over. 

Cut this pattern out, lay the bellows on the 
table on its side and if the pattern has been 
marked correctly it should be sufficiently large 
to completely surround the bellows with about 
2 inches lap at the hinges. 


Place the pattern on the leather and proceed 
to cut out the leather, allowing a good margin 
all around; this can be trimmed off after the 
leather has been nailed into position. The leather 
should be cut from' a soft pliable hide. 

Fold the leather in half long-ways and crease 
it with a hard flat instrument. This line should 
represent the center of the bellows or the central 

Fig. 48. 

board. Make two other creases each half long- 
ways. A flat iron could be used, pressed firmly 
backwards and forwards along the creased 
marks. The leather should be folded with the 
smooth surface outwards. If this has been prop- 
erly done when the leather is in place on the 
bellows it should have the appearance as shown 
in Fig. 50. Now coat the edges with a liberal 
supply of a good glue, and commence to nail on 



the leather, commencing with one end at the 
back of the bellows, but be sure that the widest 
part of the leather comes squarely in the front, 
otherwise the bellows will be crooked when 

Then tack the leather firmly on, using a strip 
of leather. Fig. 47, between the tack-head and 
the bellows leather to protect the latter. The 

Fig. 49. 

tacks should go about i in. apart and completely 
around the three end boards. Fig. 48, making an 
upper and lower air tight chamber. Do hot 
smear up the leather with the glue except at 
joint, for this would tend to crack the leather. 
This operation will require some careful work. 
Let the small ends of the bellows leather lap 
over about 2 inches. 

Air Tight. Great care must be taken to make 


the bellows all perfectly air-tight. Use leather 
cement to paste the ends of the leather together. 

Bellows Legs. Make the legs preferably of 
li in. by i in. band iron, which may easily be 
bent in the vise cold. The foot pedal, which is 
attached by long screws to the centre board, will 
have to be made of heavier stock, ij in, by J in. 

Fig. so- 
thick. Take a piece of this band iron 12 inches 
long and drill a J in. hole in the center of it about 
5 inches from one end. Then with a cold chisel 
split it along dotted line so as to make a 
2-pronged piece. Fig, 49, These prongs should 
be bent at right angles to the flat piece as indi- 
cated by the dotted lines. This had best be done 
by heating in a blacksmith's forge, or fire, and 

home: made apparatus 75 

bending while red hot. Then bend the larger 
piece at right angles along the dotted line ; flat- 
ten out the straight end a bit to make a good 
rest for the foot. Attach the legs firmly to the 
bottom board and the foot piece to the end of 

Fig. 51. 

the middle board. This makes a powerful and 
lasting bellows. Fig. 50. 

The Author has used one of these bellows con- 
stantly for five years and it has never had to be 
repaired as the bought ones do. A heavy iron 
weight on top of this bellows will give more 
force to the blast, but the bellows take some 

76 SlMi»LE SOLDERim; 

time to make and if time is precious it is better 
to use the bought ones. 

A Soldering Box may be made as follows : take 
a small solid packing box and knock out the top 
and two sides. This would leave the bottom 
with two sides standing as illustrated in Fig. 51. 
Now cover over the bottom with tin as well as 
the inside of the sides and edges. Then cover 
over the tin with heavy asbestos. One or two 
old fire bricks are useful to lay the work on so as 
to save the asbestos from too much over-heating. 

A Very Simple Soldering Iron^ Fig. 52, may be 

Fig. 52. 

made by taking a piece of f in. copper rod about 
3 inches long, filing or forging it down to a taper- 
ing square pyramidal point, drilling a i in. fiole 
about f in. from one end, running a wire through 
this hole, squeezing it into the copper rod be- 
tween the vise jaws and then twisting the wire 
so as to form a handle. 

"S. & C." LIST 

OCTO'BER, 1913 





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Modern Primary Batteries : Their construction, use and 
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Practical Silo Construction. Illustrating and explaining 
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Requisites of Chimney Construction — Constructing Small MonoUthic 
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Moulding and Curing Ornamental Concrete. A Practical 
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Dividing the Moulds — Coating the Moulds to Prevent Shelling — 
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Constructing Concrete Porches. The Construction of Mono- 
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Design with Mould — Concrete Porch Railing and Mould. — ^Index. 

Concrete Monuments, Mausoleums, and Burial Vaults. 

Construction of Moulds with Simple Methods of Lettering 
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Concrete Floors and Sidewalks. Complete Instructions for 
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Causes of Defective Floors and Walls — Foundations — Constructing 
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Moulding Concrete Bath Tubs, Aquariums and Natator- 
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Tubs, Laundry Trays, etc., with Easily Constructed Moulds, 
for the purpose. By A. A. Houghton. 16 illus,i 64 pp. 
(No. 33. New York, 1911). is. U. net. 

Proportioning and Mixing the Concrete — Construction of the Co re — - 


Moulds for Bath Tubs — ^Moulding Rim of^Bath. Tubs — Plaster System 
of Moulding Bath Tubs — ^Moulding the Square Style of Bath Tub 
— ^Moulding the Legs upon Bath Tubs — Moulding Concrete Lavatories^ 
Sinks and Closet Bowls — ^Moulding Concrete Laundry Tubs — Mould- 
ing a Concrete Aquarium — Design for a Large Concrete Aquarium — 
Concrete Aquariums for Outside Use — Moulding a Concrete Nata- 
torium — ^Waterproofing Concrete — ^Various Methods of Waterproofing 
— Use of Patent Compounds for Waterproofing Concrete. 


Moulding Concrete Fountains and Lawn Ornaments. The 

Methods of Moulding various styles of Concrete Fountains, 
Lawn Seats, Curbing, Hitching- Posts, Pergolas, Sun-dials, 
Lawn Vases, and other ornamental garden furniture of Con- 
crete. By A. A. Houghton. 14 illus., 56 pp. (No, 
37, New York, 1912.) is. 6d. net. 

Concrete Employed for Lawn Ornaments — Preventing the Concrete 
from Adhering to Mould — ^Moulding Concrete Fountains — Construct- 
ing an Attractive Base for a Fountain — ^The Plaster System of Mould- 
ing Concrete Fountains — ^Moulding Concrete Lawn Benches and 
Seats — Moulding Concrete Curbing — Constructing Concrete Pergolas 
— Moulding Concrete Sun-dials — Concrete Lawn Vases or Urns — 
Moulding Concrete Hitching-Posts — Finishing the Surface of the 

Moulding Concrete Flowers Pots, JBoxes, Jardinieres. 

The Construction of various designs of Concrete Flower Pots, 
Jardinieres, and Window Boxes of Concrete, together with 
the reinforcement and surface treatment of the Casts after 
Moulding. By A. A. Houghton. 8 illus., 52 pp. [No. 
36. New York, 1912.) is, 6d. net. 

Proportioning and Mixing the Concrete for the Work — Construction? 
of the Moulds—Construction of the Cores — Plaster and Core Position 
Mould — ^Wood and Sheet Metal Moulds — Glue, Sand and Wax Mould* 
Reinforcing the Work — Removing the work from the Mould — Fower 
Pot Moulds — Flower Boxes of Concrete — Cardboard Models for Orna- 
mental Work — Inlaid Ornamentation — Cutting Ornamental Designs 
upon Work — Finishing the Surface of your Work. 

Concrete Wall Forms. A Practical Treatise on the Construc- 
tion of all Types of Wall Forms, Separators and Spacers 
for Reinforcement. Full Details and Working Drawings of 
an Automatic Wall Clamp are given. Foundations, Retain- 
ing Walls, Placing Floor Joints, Moulding Water Tables 
and Window Ledges, and Preparation of Foimdations for 
Concrete Walls, are also dealt with. By A. A. Houghton. 
16 illus., 62 pp.j (No. 30. New York, 1911.) as. 6d. net. 

Bracing Wall Forms— Foundations for Walls— Constructing 
Footing Courses — Strength and Weight of Concrete — ^Easily made 

8 E. & F. N. SPON, Ltd., 57 HAYMARKET, iONDON, S W. 

Clamps, Wire Ties, and Separators — Use of Metal Forms for Concrete 
Walls — Constructing an Automatic Clamp for Wall Forms — Operating 
and Adjusting Clamps to all Widths of Wall — ^The Best Method of 
Placing Floor Joists — Placing Door and Window Frames and Marking 
Wall into Blocks — ^Moulding Window Ledge and Projecting Orna- 
ments with Wall — Space for Reinforcement — ^Moulding Concrete 
Furring Strips to make Fireproof Wall — An Economical System 
of Constructing Walls — Joining Sections of Wall and Bonding Con- 
crete with Acids — Retaining Walls. 

Concrete Bridges, Culverts and Sewers. Illustrating vari- 
ous types of Solid and Reinforced Arch, Slab, and Girder 
Concrete Bridges ; also the Molding of Concrete Culverts, 
Drains, and Sewers, with Forms for their Construction, 
By A. A. Houghton. 14 illus., 58 pp. [No, 34, New 
York, 1912.) IS. 6d. net. 

The Concrete Bridge — Definitions of parts of an Arch* — ^Definitions 
of parts of a Concrete Arch Bridge — Foundations and Specifications 
for Concrete Bridges — Concrete Arch Bridges without Spandrel Walls 
— Placing Concrete in Bridge Construction- — Piers and Abutments 
' — Girder and Slab Bridges — Concrete Bridge Floors — ^Concrete 
employed for Bridge Work — Concrete Culverts and Drains — ^Con- 
structing Concrete Sewers — -Index. 


Electric Bells, Annunciators and Alarms. By Norman 
H. Schneider. Second Edition, 70 illus., 83 pp. (No, 2, 
New York, 1913.) is. 6d. net. 

Introduction — Different Classes of Cells — Different Forms of 
Electric Bells and Pushes — ^Wiring — ^Alarms and Thermostats — 
Drop, Annunciators, Call Systems and Wire Systems — Fire Alarms — 
Three-wire return Call — ^Burglar and Clock Alarms — Combination 
Bell, Door-opener and Telephone Circuits. 


The Study of Electricity for Beginners. By Norman H. 
Schneider. Comprising the Elements of Electricity and 
Magnetism as applied to Dynamos, Motors, Wiring, and 
to sJl Branches of Electrical Work. 54 illus., 88 pp., 6 tables. 
(No. 6. New York, 1910,) is. td, net. 

Introduction — Generation of Electricity — Current Flow — Con- 
ductors — Insulators — Resistance — Conductivity — Ohms law — ^Vari- 
ous, kinds of Cells described — Grouping of Cells — ^Experiments in 
Magnetism — ^Lines of Force — ^Electro Magnets — Telegraph and 
Tele^one — ^Ampere-turns — ^Whirls around • Wiie — Induction — Im- 
pedance — Principle of the Dynamo — Armature and Commutator 
— Motors — C.G.S. System — Definitions of Units— Magnetic Pro- 
perties and Prefixes used for Units. 


Practical Electrics. A universal handybook on Everyday 
Electrical matters. 126 illus., 135 pp. (No, 13, New 
York, 1909.) IS. 6d. net. 

Alarms — Batteries — Bells — Connections — Carbons — Coils — Dyna- 
mo Electric Machines — Fire Risks — ^Measuring — ^Microphones — ^Motors 
— Phonographs — Photophones — Storage — ^Terminals — Telephones. 


Electric Gas Lighting. By H. S. Norrie. How to instal 

Electric Gas Igniting Apparatus, including the jump spark 

and multiple systems, for use in Houses, Churches, Theatres, 

Halls, Schools, Stores or any large Building ; also the care 

and selection of suitable Batteries, Wiring and Repairs. 

57 illus., loi pp. (No. 8. New York, 1907.) is. 6d. net. 

Introductory Remarks — ^Multiple Gas Lighting — Connections and 
Wiring — Primary Coils and Safety Devices — Lighting of Large 
Buildings — How to select Batteries for Gas Lighting. 


Low Voltage Electric Lighting, with the Storage Battery. 
By Norman H. Schneider. Specially applicable to country 
houses, farms, and small settlements, launches, yachts, etc. 
23 illus., 85 pp. (No. 26. New York, 1911.) is, 6d. net. 

Introduction — ^Advantages of the Isolated Plant — ^The Essential 
Parts of the Plant — The Storage Battery — Portable Batteries — ^Why 
Primary Batteries are not suitable — Estimating and Installation — 
Ampere hour and Lamp hour — How to figure tifie Capacity Needed 
— Regulators — Installations for Launches and Yachts — Larger 
Installations and 'Specifications — The Electric Plant — Automatic 
Devices — ^Motive Power — ^Engines and Windmills — Some Typical 
Plants — ^Installation and Operation. 


The Gyroscope. An Experimental Study. By V. E, John- 
son, M.A. From Spinning Top to Mono-Rail. 25 illus., 
52 pp. (No. 22. 1911.) IS. 6d. net. 

The Simple Gyroscope — ^Experiments — ^Unicycle Gyro — Two- 
wheeled G3nro — ^Self-Travelling Unicycle Gyro— Compound Gyroscope 
— Balanced Gyrostats — ^The secret of the Mono- Rail — Stilt Gyro- 
scope — ^Experiments with a Hoop— Automatic means of hurrjdng on 
the Precession — ^Simplest form of Mono-Rail — Stabilising Apparatus — 
Turning a Comer — ^Electrically-driven Models — Original form of 
Electric Gjrroscope — ^Electric Mono-Rail Model — Electric Source 
of Energy — ^The Caur — Lines for Mono-R^l Model — ^Travelling along 
a Straight line — Other Methods of Balancing — Non-Gyroscopic 
Stabilising Effects. 

10 E. A; F. N. SPON, Ltd., 57 HAYMARKET, LONDON, S.W 


Inventions: How to Protect, Sell and Buy them. By F. B. 
Wright. A Practical and Up-to-date Guide for Inventors 
and Patentees. io8 pp. (No, 10. New York, 1908.) 
IS. 6d. net. 

Introduction — ^The Natural Rights of Invention and the Public — 
The business of Inventing — ^The Nature of a Patent and Patentability 
— -The considerations for which a Patent is granted — Novelty and full 
Disclosure — Sole and Joint Invention and Joint Ownership — ^Protec- 
tion before Appl3dng for a Patent Caveats — ^The Application for 
Patent and its Preparation — Patent Office Procedure — Transfer of 
Patent Rights. 


Linear Perspective. By Charles W. Dymond, F.S.A 
A Key to its Theory and Methods. 15 illus., 8 plates, 32 pp. 
{No. 20. 1910.) IS. 6d. net. 

Preface — Definitions — ^Theory — Examples — ^Appendix ; Directions 
for making a Model. 


Builders' Quantities. By Horace M. Lewis, Assoc. Inst. 
M. and C. Engineers ; M.R.S.I. Illus., 54 pp. (No. 40, 
1911.) IS. 6d. net. 

Preface — General Introduction — How to Measure Areas, etc. — 
Methods of Measurement — Excavator — Sewers and House Drains — 
Bricklayer — Reinforced Concrete — ^Mason — Slater — Slate Mason — 
Tiler — Stone TiUng and Slating — Plasterer — Carpenter^ — -Joiner and 
Ironmonger — Smith and Founder — Hot-water System— Lighting — 
Bells — Plumber — Painter, Glazier and Paperhanger — Examples ol 


A B G of the Steam Engine. By J. P. Lisk, M.E. With 
a description of the Automatic Governor. Second Edition. 
6 large folding plates, 30 pp. (No. 17. New York, 1910.) 
IS. 6d. net. 

General Remarks — ^Engine Base — Engine Frame — ^Tangee Frame — 
Girder Type— Slide Valve—" D '* Valve— Piston Valve—Crank 
Shaft — ^Piston Rods and Valye Stems — Stuffing Box — ^Bearing 
Pedestals or Pillow Blocks — Journal Boxes — Flywheel — Diving Belts 
— Clearance — Steam Piping — Steam Line — Exhaust Pipe — Steam 
Separator — Steam Trap— the Governor — Shaft Governor. 


Model Steam Engine Design. By R. M. de Vignier. An 

Introductory Handbook of Practical Information, containing 
Formulae, Examples, Tables, and Data for the Model En- 
gineer. 34 illus., 94 pp. (No. 9. New York, 1911,) is. 6d, 

Various Types — Power Calculations — Feed Pumps — Compound- 
Engines — The Valve Diagram — Engine Lay-out — Patterns. 

The Corliss Engine. By J. G. Henthorn. And Its Manage- 
ment. By C. D. Thurber. 19 illus., 95 pp. [No. 23. 
New York, 1904.) is. 6d. net. 

Introductory and Historical — Steam Jacketing — Indicator Cards — 
The Governor — ^Valve-gear and Eccentric — ^Valve Setting — ^Table 
for Laps of Steam Valve — Lubrication, with Diagram for same — Dis- 
cussion of the Air Pump and its Management — Care of Main Driving 
Gears ; best Lubricator for same — Heating of Mills by Exhaust Steam 
Engine Foundations ; Diagrams and Templets for same — ^Materials 
for Engine Foundations — Appendix. 

The Fireman's Guide. By Karl P. Dahlstrom, M.E. A 
Handbook on the Care of Boilers. Twelfth Edition, 26 pp., 
(No. 16. New York, 1909.) is. 6d. net. 

Introduction — Firing and Economy of [Fuel — Feed and Water- 
Line — Low water and Foaming or Priming — Steam Pressure — Cleans- 
ing and Blowing out — General Directions — Summary of Rules. 


Simple Soldering: Both Hard and Soft. By Edward 
Thatcher. Together with descriptions of inexpensive home- 
made apparatus necessary for this art. 52 illus., 76 pp. (No.- 
18. New York, 1910.) is. 6d. net. 

Soldering — Soft Soldering — Methods of Holding Work — ^Hard 
Soldering or Brazings — Cleaning up Work; Polishing — Standard 
Apparatus — Home-made Apparatus. 


Elements of Telephony. By Arthur Crotch. 51 illus.,. 
90 pp. (No. 21. 1910.) IS. 6d. net 

Introduction' — ^The Telephone-^Telephone Sets — Exchange Work- 
• ing — ^Multiple Switchboards — Automatic Signalling— Common Bat- 
tery Working-^Junctions — The C.B. Exchange. 

12 E. & F. N. SPON, Ltd., 57 HAYMARKF.T, LONDON, S.W. 


The Model Vaudeville Theatre. By Norman H. Schneider. 

How to Construct and Operate it, 34 illus., 90 pp. {No. 
15, New York, 1909.) is. 6d, net. 

Construction of a Model Theatre — ^Marionettes — ^Transformation 
Plays — ^Methods and Apparatus for Producing Scenic Effects — 
Illusions — Illuminated Views — Punch and Judy — Boxing Match — 
Black Art— -Magic Lantern Act — ^Machines for Opaque Pictures — 
Method of Construction — Different Subjects Exhibited — Con- 


Wiring Houses for the Electric Light. By Norman H. 

Schneider. With special reference to low voltage battery 

systems. 42 illus., 86 pp. (No. 25. New York, 1911.) 
IS. 6d. net. 

Lamp Holders — ^The Circuit Defined — Planning the Wiring — 
Completing the Installation — Installing the Lights — Other Methods 
of Wiring — Conduit Work — Bringing in the Service through Iroa 
Pipe — ^Materials and Notes — Mouldings — Table of Copper Wire— ^ 
Figuring the Size of Wire Required — ^Notes on Underwriters* Rules — 
Opienwork in Dry Places — Concealed Knob and Tube Work — Service 

Electric Circuits and Diagrams. By Norman H. Schneider. 

In two volumes. 

Vol. I. 217 illus., 72 pp. (No. 3. New York, 1911.) 
IS. f>d. net. Wiring Circuits and Diagrams of the foDow- 
mg :— 

Bells ; Annunciators ; Alarms — Telephones — ^Automobiles — ^Wiring 
and Simple Circuits — Gas Lighting by Electricity — Dynamo Circuits — 
Electrical Instruments — ^Motors — Street Railway — Storage Battery 
— ^Testing — Telegraph — ^Wireless Telegraphy 

Vol. IL 78 illus., 80 pp. (No. 4. New York, 1911.) 
IS. 6d. net. Wiring Circuits and Diagrams of the follow- 

Alternating Current Generators — General Diagram of an Induction 
Generator — Synchronizers — Diagrams of Switchboard Instruments 
— ^Diagrams with Transformers — Booster Transformers — Single place 
Motors — Reversing A.C. Motors — Series D.C. Arc Circuits— -Switch 
Control of Lamps — ^Emergency Switch S3rstem — Storage Battery 
Diagrams— D.C. Motor Starters — ^Motor Speed Control—Solenoid 
MoTOr Starters — ^Three-wire Generators — Switchboard and Con- 
nectk)ns — A.C. Motors and Starters — Outdoor Lighting. 



Wireless Telephone Construction. By Newton Harrison, 

E.E. A comprehensive explanation of the making of a 
Wireless Telephone Equipment. Transmitting and Receiv- 
ing Stations fully explained, with details of construction 
sufficient to give an intelligent reader a good start in building 
a Wireless Telephone System and in operating it. 43 illus., 
74 pp. (No. 12. New York, 1909.) is. 6d. net. 

What is Wireless Telephony ? — Ether Waves are Silent — ^Waves 
considered in various ways — Finding Length of an Ether Wave — 
Frequency and Radiation — Transmitting and Receiving Stations — 
Supplying the Arc Current from a Battery — Battery Maintenance — 
Arcs — Radiation — Current and Volts required by the Arc producing 
the Waves — High Voltages — ^Transformer — Cells for High Tension 
Power — Ruhmer Transmission System — Auto Coherers — ^Wave 
Detectors — Coils — ^Transmitting Apparatus — ^Testing — ^Microphones 
— Aerials — ^Earth Waves — Receiving Circuit — Detectors — Resonance 


Making Wireless Outfits. By Newton Harrison, E.E. 

A concise and simple explanation of the construction and 
use of an inexpensive Wireless Equipment for sending and 
receiving up to 100 miles, giving full details and illustrations. 
27 illus., 61 pp. (No. 11. New York, 1909.) is. 6d. net. 

Waves, Antennae and Aerials. What the Relay is for — ^Making the 
Relay and Sounder — Marconi's Coherer — ^The Transmitter — Spark 
Coils— Vibrator — Condenser — Effect of daylight on Electric Waves — 
Connection of Antennae to Stations — Metal Towers — Ground Con- 
nections — Use of Gas Pipes for Ground — Tuning Circuits — Power 
required for long-distance Wireless Telegraphy — Dimensions of Coils 
for Sparks of different lengths — Telegraphic Codes — ^Morse Code — 
Continental Code- — Earth Connections in the Country — ^Tables — • 
Heights of Antennae with Distances between Stations — Brass Knobs 
8/10 inches in diameter — Dimensions for different Spark Lengths. 

Wireless Telegraphy for Intending Operators. By G. 

K.P.Eden, B.Sc, etc. 16 illus., 80 pp. [No. 24, 1913.) 

IS. 6d. net. 

Detectors — ^Transmitters — Tuning Apparatus — Wireless Station. 
Equipment — ^Aerials and Earths — Small Power Experimental Appara-^ 

Plans and Specifications for Wireless Telegraph Sets,. 
Part I. By Frederick Collins. Complete and detailed 

14 E. & F. N. SPON, Ltd., 57 HAYMARKET, LONDON, S.W. 

instructions for making an Experimental Set, also a One to 
Five Mile Set. 37 illus., 47 pp. (No, 41. New York, 1912. ) 
15. 6d. net. 

An Experimental Transmitter — The Induction Coil — The Key — To 
Adjust the Transmitter — Experimental Receptors — The Relay — To 
Wire the Receptor — The Microphone Detector — ^A One to Five Mile 
Transmitter — Binding Posts — The Condenser — ^the Aerial and Ground 
Wire — ^A One to Five Mile Coherer Receptor — The Coherer — ^The 
Standards — The Relay — ^The Sounder — A One to Five Mile Auto- 

Plans and Specifications for Wireless Telegraph Sets. 
By A. F. Collins. Compliete and detailed data for construct- 
ing a Five to Ten Mile Set ; also a Ten to Twenty-five Mile 
Set. 63 illus., 72 pp. [No. 42. New York, 1912.) is. 6d. net. 

A five to ten mile tuned Transmitter — ^The Adjustable Spark 
Gap — a Simple Tuning Coil — The Completed Transmitter — a Five 
to Ten Mile Tuned Coherer Receptor — The Apparatus — ^The Con- 
denser — The Completed Receptor — A Five to Ten mile Tuned Auto- 
Detector Receptor — The Wiring Diagram — ^The Aerial — A Ten to 
Twenty-five Mile tuned Transmitter — ^Wiring Diagram of Low Voltage 
Circuits — -from Ten to Twenty-five Mile Transmitter — A Motor 
Generator Set — A Ten to Twenty-five Mile Tuned Coherer Receptor — 
Choke Coil — The Completed Receptor — A Ten to Twenty-fiye Mile 
Auto-Detector Receptor— Telephone Receivers. 


LIST OF S. <fe C. SERIES 16 


Uniform, in cloth, Price Is. 6d. net each. 

No. Page 

1. Modern Primary Batteries -4 

2. How to Install Electric Bells, Annunciators and 

Alarms 8 

3. Electrical Circuits and Diagrams, Part I. .12 

4. Electrical Circuits and Diagrams, Part II. .12 

5. Experimenting with Induction Coils 4 
6 The Study of Electricity for Beginners 8 

7. Dry Batteries, how to make and Use them . 3 

8. Electric Gas Lighting 9 

9. Model Steam Engine Design .11 

10. Inventions, how to Protect, Sell and Buy them 10 

11. Making Wireless Outfits 13 

12. ^ Wireless Telephone Construction -13 

13. Practical Electrics ; a Universal Handy Book on 

Everyday Electrical Matters -9 

14. How to Build a 20-footBi -plane Glider 3 

15. The Model Vaudeville Theatre . .12 

16. The Fireman's Guide ; a Handbook on the Care 

of Boilers .11 

17. A.B.C. of the Steam Engine, with a Description 

of the Automatic Governor. .10 

18. Simple Soldering, both Hard and Soft .11 

19. Ignition Accumulators, their Care and Manage- 

ment ........ 3 

20. Key to Linear Perspective .10 

21. Elements of Telephony 11 

22. E^erimental Study of the Gyroscope . 9 

E. ^ F. N. SPON, Ltd?, 57 HAYMARKET, LONDON, S.W. 


Umform, in d6th, Price Is. 6d. net each. 

No, Page 

23. The Corliss Engine .11 

24. Wireless Telegraphy for Intending Operators 13 

25. Wiring Houses for the Electric Light .12 

26. Low Voltage Electric Lighting with the Storage 

Battery ....... 9 

27. Practical Silo Construction in Concrete . 4 

28. Moulding Concrete Chimneys, Slate and Roof 

X lies ...... ..^ 

29. Moulding and Curing Ornamental Concrete ^ . 5 

30. Concrete Wall Forms 7 

31. Concrete Monuments, Mausoleums and Burial 

Vaults . . . 6 

32. Concrete Floors and Sidewalks ... 6 

33. Moulding Concrete Bath Tubs, Aquariums and 

Natatoriums ...... 6 

34. Concrete Bridges, Culverts and Sewers . & 

35. Constructing Concrete Porches ... 5 

36. Moulding Concrete Fountains and Lawn Orna- 

ments ........ 

37. Moulding Concrete Flower Boxes,, Jardinieres^ 

d.v». . • , * . .. . . 

39. Natural Stability and the Parachute Principle 

in Aeroplanes ...... 

40. Builders* Quantities 

41. Plans and Specifications for Wireless Telegraph 

Sets, Part I 

42 . Plans and Specifications for Wireless Telegraph 

Sets, Part II 

43. Cycle Building and Repairing .... 

E. 6 F. N. SPON. Ltd.. LONDON* 

Printed by Butler & Tanner, Frome and London. 






Date Due 


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